Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
Print version ISSN 0034-7094
CLIVATTI, Jefferson; SAKATA, Rioko Kimiko and ISSY, Adriana Machado. Review of the use of gabapentin in the control of postoperative pain. Rev. Bras. Anestesiol. [online]. 2009, vol.59, n.1, pp. 87-98. ISSN 0034-7094. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-70942009000100012.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Gabapentin has been used as adjuvant in the treatment of postoperative pain with a neuropathic component. It is responsible for the inhibition of central sensitization, decreasing postoperative pain. CONTENTS: All clinical, randomized studies that evaluated the effects of gabapentin on postoperative pain in humans between 2002 and 2007 for a total of 26 studies were selected. In 17 studies, patients received a single preoperative dose, which ranged from 300 to 1,200 mg, 30 minutes to two hours before surgery. In the remaining studies, the administration of the drug was initiated one to 24 hours before the procedure and continued for 10 days, in doses that ranged from 1,200 to 1,800 mg.day-1. To measure pain severity, the Visual Analog or Numeric Rating Scale was used. In 75% of patients who received a single dose of gabapentin, scores were lower, and the same was seen in 55.6¨% of patients who received the drugs pre- and postoperatively. Opioid consumption was reduced in 82.4% of patients who received a single dose, and in 77.8% of patients who received pre- and postoperative gabapentin. Among the studies using a single dose of gabapentin, four did not describe adverse effects; 52.9% showed no differences, 11.8% detected more nausea or vomiting, 5.9% experienced more dizziness, 5.9% more sedation, less nausea or vomiting in one, and less urinary retention in one. Among the studies with pre- and postoperative administration of gabapentin, four did not describe adverse effects; 22.2% showed no differences, 11.1% had more nausea or vomiting, 22.2% more dizziness, and 11.1% more sedation. CONCLUSIONS: Gabapentin, used before as well as before and after surgery, decreased pain severity and the need of analgesic supplementation.
Keywords : DRUGS [gabapentin]; PAIN [postoperative].