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Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
On-line version ISSN 1806-907X
CANTINHO, Fernando Antônio de Freitas and SILVA, Antonio Carlos Pereira da. Assessment of the use of racemic ketamine and its S(+) isomer, associated or not with low doses of fentanyl, in balneotherapy for major burn patients. Rev. Bras. Anestesiol. [online]. 2009, vol.59, n.4, pp.396-408. ISSN 1806-907X. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-70942009000400002.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The care of the wounds of major burn patients triggers severe painful stimuli. The objective of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of different drug combinations in anesthesia for balneotherapy. METHODS: After approval by the Ethics Commission, 200 procedures of balneotherapy in 87 major burn adult patients were evaluated. Midazolam was used in all cases. The vials of ketamine were numbered and, therefore, at the time of the use, one did not know whether racemic or S(+)ketamine was being used. Each morning it was decided by drawing lots whether fentanyl would be used or not in the procedures of that day. Patients were included in one of four groups: ISO/sf (S(+) isomer without fentanyl), ISO/cf (S(+) isomer with fentanyl), RAC/sf (racemic ketamine without fentanyl), and RAC/cf (racemic ketamine with fentanyl). The initial doses proposed were as follows: midazolam, 0.06 mg.kg-1; ketamine, 1.0 to 1.1 mg.kg-1; and fentanyl, 0.8 ¼g.kg1-1; additional doses were administered as needed. RESULTS: Only one patient recalled the pain of balneotherapy. In the group that received S(+)ketamine, the use of fentanyl did not bring additional advantages; however, when associated with racemic ketamine, fentanyl reduced the total dose and the number of ketamine boluses. The extension of body surface burned was the main determinant of the severity of post-procedure pain. Reduced pain severity was the main factor considered by patients when grading their satisfaction with the anesthesia. CONCLUSIONS: The four different drug combinations proved to be safe and guaranteed the absence of pain during balneotherapy. Characteristics not directly related to the anesthetics proved to be more important in the incidence of post-procedure pain, which was the main factor considered by major burn patient to define their satisfaction with the anesthesia used.
Keywords : ANALGESICS [ketamine]; DISEASES [burns]; THERAPY [balneotherapy].