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Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
Print version ISSN 0034-7094
NUNES, Rogean Rodrigues; CAVALCANTE, Sara Lúcia and FRANCO, Suyane Benevides. Effects of sedation produced by the association of midazolam and ketamine S(+) on encephalographic variables. Rev. Bras. Anestesiol. [online]. 2011, vol.61, n.3, pp.307-310. ISSN 0034-7094. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-70942011000300005.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ketamine S(+) is important in pain modulation in surgical patients. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the levels of sedation produced by low doses of ketamine S(+), as well as encephalographic variables: BIS, SEF 95%, pEMG, suppression rate, and presence of burst-suppression. METHODS: Thirty patients of both sexes, aged 25-50 years, were randomized into three groups. Group G1 (10) received intravenous ketamine S(+) 0.050 mg,kg-1; group G2 (10) intravenous ketamine S(+) 0.125 mg.kg-1; and group G3 (10) intravenous ketamine S(+) 0.250 mg.kg-1. All patients received 0.08 mg.kg-1 of intravenous midazolam 10 minutes before administration of ketamine S(+). In each group, two moments were evaluated: M1, before ketamine S(+) administration; and M2, after ketamine S(+) administration. Sedation levels and encephalographic variables: BIS, SEF 95%, pEMG, suppression rate, and the presence of burst-suppression were evaluated in all patients before and after ketamine S(+) administration. ANOVA was used for repeated measurements and the p-value was adjusted for multiple comparisons by Tukey's test. RESULTS: A decrease in alertness-sedation scale scores was observed in all three groups in moment M2. Electroencephalographic variables showed significant variation in all three groups when moments M1 and M2 were compared, both in pEMG and BIS (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Sedation levels showed significant correlation with the increase in ketamine S(+) dosage. However, increased BIS levels may have reflected increased pEMG induced by ketamine S(+).
Keywords : Ketamine; Deep Sedation; Conscious Sedation; Electroencephalography.