Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
Print version ISSN 0034-7094
BOAS, Walkíria Wingester Vilas; MARQUES, Mirna Bastos and ALVES, Atos. Hydroelectrolytic balance and cerebral relaxation with hypertonic isoncotic saline versus mannitol (20%) during elective neuroanesthesia. Rev. Bras. Anestesiol. [online]. 2011, vol.61, n.4, pp. 462-468. ISSN 0034-7094. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-70942011000400007.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cerebral relaxation during intracranial surgery is necessary, and hiperosmolar therapy is one of the measures used to this end. Frequently, neurosurgical patients have sodium imbalances. The objective of the present study was to quantify and determine cerebral relaxation and duration of hydroelectrolytic changes secondary to the use of mannitol versus hypertonic isoncotic solution (HIS) during neurosurgery. METHODS: Cerebral relaxation and hydroelectrolytic changes were evaluated in 29 adult patients before de beginning of infusion, and 30 and 120 minutes after the infusion of equiosmolar loads of approximately 20% mannitol (250 mL) or HIS (120 mL). The volume of intravenous fluids infused and diuresis were recorded. A p < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: A statistically significant difference in cerebral relaxation between both groups was not observed. Although several changes in electrolyte levels and acid-base balance with mannitol or HIS reached statistical significance only the reduction in plasma sodium 30 minutes after infusion of mannitol, mean of 6.42 ± 0.40 mEq.L-1, and the increase in chloride, mean of 5.41 ± 0.96 mEq.L-1 and 5.45 ± 1.45 mEq.L-1 30 and 120 minutes after infusion of HIS, caused a transitory dislocation of serum ion levels from normal range. The mannitol (20%) group had a significantly greater diuresis at both times studied compared with HIS group. CONCLUSIONS: A single dose of hypertonic isoncotic saline solution [7.2% NaCl/6% HES (200/0.5)] and mannitol (20%) with equivalent osmolar loads were effective and safe in producing cerebral relaxation during elective neurosurgical procedures under general anesthesia.
Keywords : Saline Solution; Hypertonic; Mannitol; Water-Electrolyte Imbalance; Neurosurgery.