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Revista Brasileira de Oftalmologia

Print version ISSN 0034-7280On-line version ISSN 1982-8551


HILGERT, Gabriel Rebello; TREVIZAN, Eduardo  and  SOUZA, Juliano Mendes de. Use of a handheld fundus camera as a screening tool for diabetic retinopathy. Rev. bras.oftalmol. [online]. 2019, vol.78, n.5, pp.321-326.  Epub Nov 04, 2019. ISSN 0034-7280.


Determine the effectiveness of the use a portable handheld fundus camera as a screening method for diabetic retinopathy, compared to regular digital retinography.


This is a cross-sectional, observer-masked study, evaluating 100 eyes of 51 diabetic patients undergoing a routine dilated retinography for diabetic retinopathy. Fundus images pre and post-dilation we captured by Pictor Plus (Volk Optical Inc., Mentor, USA), followed by routine digital retinography by IMAGEnet (Topcon Medical Systems, New Jersey, USA). All exams were performed by a trained technician on the same occasion. The images were analyzed and graded by a masked retina specialist and classified as normal, presence of diabetic macular edema, nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (initial, moderate and severe) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The ungradable images were recorded and excluded from analyses. The agreement between results obtained by the three methods was evaluated via Kappa coefficient. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values in relation to IMAGEnet images were also determined.


Images were gradable in 89% of pre-dilation photos. Pictor Plus pre-dilation images had high sensitivity and specificity in identifying normal eyes (92.9% and 93.4%) and in vision-threatening DR (82.9% and 97.9%) both when compared to IMAGEnet results.


Pictor can capture retinal images of sufficient quality to screen for DR with and without dilation. Single retinal images obtained using Pictor can identify eyes with vision-threatening DR with high sensitivity and specificity compared to routine IMAGEnet images.

Keywords : Diabetic retinopathy; Vision screening; Pictor plus; Portable Fundus camera; Blindness; Telemedicine.

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