Revista de Saúde Pública
Print version ISSN 0034-8910
SALAS MARTINS, Ignez et al. Atherogenic alimentary habits of population groups in a metropolitan area of southeastern Brazil. Rev. Saúde Pública [online]. 1994, vol.28, n.5, pp. 349-356. ISSN 0034-8910. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-89101994000500008.
This present study is one part of the project "Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, lipemic disorders, hypertension, obesity and diabetes mellitus in a population of the metropolitan area of S. Paulo, Brazil" undertaken in Cotia county. An alimentary inquiry based on the alimentary history of the individual was carried out among a sub-sample of the population (568 individuals). The objectives of the inquiry are the following: a)- the identification of the atherogenic potential of the diets of different human groups, stratified according to social class and b) the analysis of consumption differentials of some nutrients, which confer atherogenicity to the diet, as between social classes. The consumption differentials were analyzed as between men and women, by social class and taking the 50th percentile (P50) of the sample as the standard of reference, with regard to the following dietary constituents: energy, total proteins, proteins of animal origin, percentages of protein calories (P%), fatty acids, fats (F%) and carbohydrates (CH%). Also, according to this criterion,some diet profiles were analyzed in the light of the recommendations of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NEP) as regards the calorie supplied by fats(F%), saturated fatty acids (SFA%), carbohydrates (CH%) and cholesterol (>300 mg/day). The following were the findings obtained: the consumption differentials were more pronounced among the men. The social class which presented the largest percentages above the P50 of the sample, with regard to energy, total proteins, fats and carbohydrates, were the non-specialized workers, i.e. the manual laborers who have a high expendure of energy, and that of small property owners and shop-keepers who lead a sedentary life. The class of the greatest acquisitive power and highest educational level presented a moderate consumption of these constituents. On the other hand, the consumption of the proteins of animal origin, above the P50, among men and women, maintained a direct relationship with socioeconomic level. The proportion of calories coming from fats (F%) and protein (P%) was directly proportional to the acquisitive power of the class, while that of carbohydrates (CH%) presented an inverse relationship. On the other hand, the consumption of cholesterol in excess of 300mg/day was found to between 37 and 50% and 20 and 32% for men and women, respectively. The percentage of diets with more than 30% of calories coming from fats (F%) varied from 25 to 40% for men and 45 to 50% for women. The participation of the saturated fatty acids(SFA%) in proportions greater or equal to 10 was relatively low for both sexes: being of 5 to 17% for the men and of less than 10% for the women. The percentages of cases in the relationship saturated to unsaturated fatty acids (SFA/UFA) maintaining values less than 1% was also low for the population in general, being of 7 and 22% for the men and less than 10% for the women. It is concluded that diet probably is an important risk factor in cardiovascular diseases, lipemic disorders, obesity and hypertension, for a large part of the population , mainly for the small property owners and shop-keepers, is viable.
Keywords : Dieta aterogênica; Classe social; Hábitos alimentares.