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Revista de Saúde Pública
On-line version ISSN 1518-8787
SARNO, Flavio et al. Estimated sodium intake by the Brazilian population, 2002-2003. Rev. Saúde Pública [online]. 2009, vol.43, n.2, pp. 219-225. Epub Feb 13, 2009. ISSN 1518-8787. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-89102009005000002.
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the magnitude and distribution of sodium intake in Brazil and to identify major dietary sources contributing to this intake. METHODS: Estimates were based on data from a Brazilian household budget survey carried between July 2002 and June 2003. A total of 969,989 food purchase records from a probabilistic sample of 48,470 households located in 3,984 census tracts across the country were analyzed. Purchase records were converted into nutrients using food composition charts. Mean sodium availability per person per day and mean adjusted availability considering a 2,000 kcal daily energy intake were calculated, as well as the contribution of selected food groups to total household sodium availability. Estimates are presented according to geographical region, urban or rural status of the household, and income stratum. RESULTS: Mean daily sodium availability in Brazilian households was 4.5 g per person (or 4.7 g considering a daily calorie intake of 2,000 kcal), thus exceeding by more than two times the recommended levels of intake for this nutrient. Although most of the sodium available for intake across all income strata was derived from kitchen salt or salt-based condiments (76.2%), the fraction derived from processed foods with added salt showed a strong linear increase as household purchasing power increased, representing 9.7% of total sodium intake in the lower quintile of the per capita income distribution and 25.0% in the upper quintile. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that sodium intake in Brazil widely exceeds the maximum recommended intake level for this nutrient in all of the country's macro regions and across all income strata.
Keywords : Sodium, Dietary; Food Consumption; Socioeconomic Factors; Brazil.