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Revista de Saúde Pública

Print version ISSN 0034-8910

Abstract

OLIVEIRA, Maria Inês Couto de; SILVA, Kátia Silveira da; GOMES JUNIOR, Saint Clair  and  FONSECA, Vânia Matos. Delivering rapid HIV tests results after delivery: a threat to breastfeeding at birth. Rev. Saúde Pública [online]. 2010, vol.44, n.1, pp.60-69. ISSN 0034-8910.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-89102010000100007.

OBJECTIVE: To analyze factors associated with failure to breastfeed during the first hour of life, especially the influence of time of delivery of rapid HIV test results. METHODS: Cohort study, beginning with the administration of the rapid test and ending the first time the baby is breastfed. The study population included 944 delivering mothers that received rapid HIV testing with a negative result in five Baby-Friendly hospitals of the High-Risk Pregnancy System in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. Trained interviewers obtained data from laboratory and patient charts and interviewed mothers shortly after delivery. The influence of sociodemographic variables and antenatal and delivery care characteristics on failure to breastfeed during the first hour of life was determined through a multilevel model. RESULTS: Among participants, 15.6% received the result of rapid HIV testing before delivery, 30.8% after delivery, and 53.6% had not yet been informed of their results at the time of the interview. Prevalence of failure to breastfeed in the first hour of life was 52.5% (95% CI: 49.3;55.8). After adjustment, having received the result of rapid testing only after delivery doubled the risk of failing to breastfeed in the first hour (RR=2.06; 95% CI: 1.55;2.75). Other risk factors included nonwhite skin color, maternal income of up to one minimum wage, delivery by C-section, mother's lack of desire to breastfeed at birth, and mother's report that the hospital staff did not listen to her. Lack of knowledge of HIV testing from the mother's part was found to be a protective factor. CONCLUSIONS: The major risk factor for not breastfeeding in the first hour of life was failure to receive the results of rapid HIV testing prior to delivery. HIV testing should be made widely available during antenatal care; rapid testing should be performed upon admission, only when indicated, and with active search and prompt delivery of results to expecting mothers.

Keywords : Breast Feeding; Women; AIDS Serodiagnosis; HIV Infections, diagnosis. Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical, prevention & control; Cohort Studies.

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