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Revista de Saúde Pública

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SOARES, Tatiana Spinelli Martins; LATORRE, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; LAPORTA, Gabriel Zorello  and  BUZZAR, Márcia Regina. Spatial and seasonal analysis on leptospirosis in the municipality of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, 1998 to 2006. Rev. Saúde Pública [online]. 2010, vol.44, n.2, pp.283-291. ISSN 0034-8910.

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the spatial and seasonal distribution of leptospirosis and identify possible ecological and social components of its transmission. METHODS: A total of 2,490 cases registered in each district of the municipality of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, between 1998 and 2006, were georeferenced. The data were obtained from the Notifiable Diseases Information System. Thematic maps were made, showing the variables of incidence rate, lethality rate, literacy rate, average monthly income, number of residents per household, water supply and sewage system. To identify spatial patterns (dispersed, clustered or random), these variables were analyzed using the global and local Moran indices. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to test associations between variables with clustered spatial patterns. RESULTS: Clustered spatial patterns were observed for the variables of leptospirosis incidence, literacy rate, average monthly income, number of residents per household, water supply and sewage system. There were 773 notified cases in the dry season and 1,717 cases in the rainy season. The incidence and lethality rates correlated with the population's socioeconomic conditions, independently of the period. CONCLUSIONS: Leptospirosis is spread throughout the municipality of São Paulo, and its incidence increases during the rainy season. In the dry season, the localities where cases appear coincide with the areas of poorest housing conditions. In the rainy season, it also increases in other districts, probably due to the proximity of rivers and streams.

Keywords : Leptospirosis [epidemiology]; Temporal Distribution; Residence Characteristics; Risk Factors; Socioeconomic Factors; Geographic Information Systems [utilization].

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