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Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
On-line version ISSN 1678-9946
FERREIRA, Marcelo S. et al. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Brazil: clinical aspects of three new cases. Rev. Inst. Med. trop. S. Paulo [online]. 2000, vol.42, n.1, pp.41-46. ISSN 1678-9946. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0036-46652000000100007.
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) has been recognized recently in Brazil, where 28 cases have been reported as of September 1999. We report here the clinical and laboratory findings of three cases whose diagnoses were confirmed serologically. All the patients were adults who presented a febrile illness with respiratory symptoms that progressed to respiratory failure that required artificial ventilation in two of them. Laboratory findings were most of the time consistent with those reported in the United States in patients infected with the Sin Nombre virus, and included elevated hematocrit and thrombocytopenia; presence of atypical lymphocytes was observed in one patient. The chest radiological findings observed in all the patients were bilateral, diffuse, reticulonodular infiltrates. Two patients died. Histopathological examination of the lungs of these patients revealed interstitial and alveolar edema, alveolar hemorrhage, and mild interstitial pneumonia characterized by infiltrate of immunoblasts and mononuclear cells. In the epidemiologic investigation of one of the cases, serologic (ELISA) tests were positive in 3 (25%) out of 12 individuals who shared the same environmental exposure. HPS should be included in the differential diagnosis of interstitial pneumonia progressing to acute respiratory failure.
Keywords : Brazil; Hantaviruses; Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.