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Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
On-line version ISSN 1678-9946
CAMANDAROBA, Edson Luiz P.; PINHEIRO LIMA, Clarissa M. and ANDRADE, Sonia G.. Oral transmission of Chagas disease: importance of Trypanosoma cruzi biodeme in the intragastric experimental infection. Rev. Inst. Med. trop. S. Paulo [online]. 2002, vol.44, n.2, pp. 97-103. ISSN 1678-9946. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0036-46652002000200008.
Oral transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi has been suspected when epidemic episodes of acute infection were observed in areas devoid of domiciled insect vectors. Considering that the distribution of T. cruzi biodemes differs in sylvatic and domestic cycles, results of studies on biodemes can be of interest regarding oral transmission. The infectivity of T. cruzi strains of different biodemes was tested in mice subjected to infection by the digestive route (gavage). Swiss mice were infected either with the Peruvian strain (Biodeme Type I, Z2b) or the Colombian strain (Biodeme Type III, Z1, or T. cruzi I); for control, intraperitoneal inoculation was performed in a group of mice. The Colombian strain revealed a similar high infectivity and pathogenicity when either route of infection was used. However, the Peruvian strain showed contrasting levels of infectivity and pathogenicity, being high by intraperitoneal inoculation and low when the gastric route was used. The higher infectivity of the Colombian strain (Biodeme Type III) by gastric inoculation is in keeping with its role in the epidemic episodes of acute Chagas disease registered in the literature, since strains belonging to Biodeme III are most often found in sylvatic hosts.
Keywords : Trypanosoma cruzi; Oral transmission; Experimental intragastric infection; T.cruzi strains infectivity; Biodemes.