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Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
On-line version ISSN 1678-9946
MADALOSSO, Geraldine et al. Chagasic meningoencephalitis: case report of a recently included AIDS-defining illness in Brazil. Rev. Inst. Med. trop. S. Paulo [online]. 2004, vol.46, n.4, pp.199-202. ISSN 1678-9946. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0036-46652004000400005.
Recently, reactivation of Chagas disease (meningoencephalitis and/or myocarditis) was included in the list of AIDS-defining illnesses in Brazil. We report a case of a 52-year-old patient with no history of previous disease who presented acute meningoencephalitis. Direct examination of blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed Trypanosoma cruzi. CSF culture confirmed the diagnosis. Serological assays for T. cruzi and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were positive. Despite treatment with benznidazol and supportive measures, the patient died 24 hours after hospital admission. In endemic areas, reactivation of Chagas disease should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of meningoencephalitis among HIV-infected patients, and its presence is indicative of AIDS.
Keywords : Chagas disease; Meningoencephalitis; Central nervous system; Epidemiology; Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; Brazil.