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Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
On-line version ISSN 1678-9946
MACHADO, Daisy Maria et al. Analysis of HIV- type 1 protease and reverse transcriptase in Brazilian children failing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Rev. Inst. Med. trop. S. Paulo [online]. 2005, vol.47, n.1, pp. 1-5. ISSN 1678-9946. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0036-46652005000100001.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotypic resistance profiles of HIV-1 in children failing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Forty-one children (median age = 67 months) receiving HAART were submitted to genotypic testing when virological failure was detected. cDNA was extracted from PBMCs and amplified by nested PCR for the reverse transcriptase and protease regions of the pol gene. Drug resistance genotypes were determined from DNA sequencing. According to the genotypic analysis, 12/36 (33.3%) and 6/36 (16.6%) children showed resistance and possible resistance, respectively, to ZDV; 5/36 (14%) and 4/36 (11.1%), respectively, showed resistance and possible resistance to ddI; 4/36 (11.1%) showed resistance to 3TC and D4T; and 3/36 (8.3%) showed resistance to Abacavir. A high percentage (54%) of children exhibited mutations conferring resistance to NNRTI class drugs. Respective rates of resistance and possible resistance to PIs were: RTV (12.2%, 7.3%); APV (2.4%, 12.1%); SQV(0%, 12.1%); IDV (14.6%, 4.9%), NFV (22%, 4.9%), LPV/RTV (2.4%, 12.1%). Overall, 37/41 (90%) children exhibited virus with mutations related to drug resistance, while 9% exhibited resistance to all three antiretroviral drug classes.
Keywords : HIV resistance; Antiretroviral therapy; Children; Treatment failure.