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Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo

On-line version ISSN 1678-9946

Abstract

BOSZCZOWSKI, Icaro et al. POLYCLONAL OUTBREAK OF BLOODSTREAM INFECTIONS CAUSED BY Burkholderia cepacia COMPLEX IN HEMATOLOGY AND BONE MARROW TRANSPLANT OUTPATIENT UNITS. Rev. Inst. Med. trop. S. Paulo [online]. 2014, vol.56, n.1, pp.71-76. ISSN 1678-9946.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0036-46652014000100011.

Aim: The objective was to describe an outbreak of bloodstream infections by Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) in bone marrow transplant and hematology outpatients.

Methods: On February 15, 2008 a Bcc outbreak was suspected. 24 cases were identified. Demographic and clinical data were evaluated. Environment and healthcare workers' (HCW) hands were cultured. Species were determined and typed. Reinforcement of hand hygiene, central venous catheter (CVC) care, infusion therapy, and maintenance of laminar flow cabinet were undertaken. 16 different HCWs had cared for the CVCs. Multi-dose heparin and saline were prepared on counter common to both units.

Findings: 14 patients had B. multivorans(one patient had also B. cenopacia), six non-multivorans Bcc and one did not belong to Bcc. Clone A B. multivorans occurred in 12 patients (from Hematology); in 10 their CVC had been used on February 11/12. Environmental and HCW cultures were negative. All patients were treated with meropenem, and ceftazidime lock-therapy. Eight patients (30%) were hospitalized. No deaths occurred. After control measures (multidose vial for single patient; CVC lock with ceftazidime; cleaning of laminar flow cabinet; hand hygiene improvement; use of cabinet to store prepared medication), no new cases occurred.

Conclusions: This polyclonal outbreak may be explained by a common source containing multiple species of Bcc, maybe the laminar flow cabinet common to both units. There may have been contamination by B. multivorans (clone A) of multi-dose vials.

Keywords : Burkholderia cepacia complex; Bloodstream infection; Nosocomial infection; Hematology; Bone marrow transplant.

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