Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
On-line version ISSN 1678-9849
REIS, Luiza de Campos et al. Clinical, epidemiological and laboratory aspects of patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Pernambuco. Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop. [online]. 2008, vol.41, n.5, pp. 439-443. ISSN 1678-9849. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0037-86822008000500001.
The diagnosis for American cutaneous leishmaniasis is based on an association of clinical, epidemiological and laboratory characteristics. The present study identified the circulating species of Leishmania in the State of Pernambuco, described its clinical-epidemiological characteristics and diagnosed the disease. Nineteen patients presenting active lesions who had been diagnosed through clinical evaluation and laboratory tests were selected. The tests included direct investigation, in vitro culturing, Montenegro skin test, indirect immunofluorescence and polymerase chain reaction. The Montenegro Skin Test showed positive results in 89% of the patients; indirect immunofluorescence, in 79%; direct investigation, in 58%; and polymerase chain reaction in 75%. Seven Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis samples were isolated from these patients and were characterized by means of specific monoclonal antibodies. These data confirm that a combination of different diagnosis techniques is needed in order to obtain efficient results and that, so far, Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is the only species responsible for American cutaneous leishmaniasis infection in Pernambuco. Thus, it is essential to identify the parasite species involved in cases of human disease in an endemic area in order to determine the clinical and epidemiological characteristics, especially with regard to diagnosis, therapy development and disease prognosis.
Keywords : American cutaneous leishmaniasis; Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis; Montenegro skin test; Indirect immunofluorescence; Polymerase chain reaction.