Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Print version ISSN 0037-8682
SILVEIRA, Antônio Carlos and DIAS, João Carlos Pinto. The control of vectorial transmission. Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop. [online]. 2011, vol.44, suppl.2, pp. 52-63. ISSN 0037-8682. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0037-86822011000800009.
Between 1950 and 1951, the first Prophylactic campaign against Chagas Diseases was carried on in Brazil by the so existing Serviço Nacional de Malária. The actions involving chemical vector control comprehended 74 municipalities along the Rio Grande Valley, between the States of São Paulo and Minas Gerais. Ever since, until 1975, the activities were performed according the availability of resources, being executed with more or less regularity and coverage. At that time, Chagas disease did no represent priority, in comparison with other endemic diseases prevalent in the Country. Even so, taking into account the accumulated data along those 25 years, the volume of work realized cannot be considered despicable. Nevertheless, it was few consistent, in terms of its impact on disease transmission. In 1975, with an additional injection of resources surpassed from the malaria program, plus the methodological systematization of the activities, and with the results of two extensive national inquiries (entomologic and serologic), the activities for vector control could be performed regularly, following two basic principles: interventions in always contiguous areas, progressively enlarged, and sustainability (continuity) of the activities, until being attained determined requirements and purpose previously established. Such actions and strategies lead into the exhaustion of the populations of the principal vector species, Triatoma infestans, no autochthonous and exclusively domiciliary, as well as the control of the domiciliary colonization of autochthonous species important to disease transmission. Vector transmission today is being considered residual, by means of some few native and peridomestic species, such as Triatoma brasiliensis and Triatoma pseudomaculata. There is, also, the risk of progressive domiciliation of some species before considered sylvatic, such as Panstrongylus lutzi and Triatoma rubrovaria. Finally, there is the possibility of the occurrence of cases of human infection directly related to the enzootic cycle of the parasite. By all these reasons, it is still indispensable the maintenance of a strict epidemiological surveillance against Chagas Disease in Brazil.
Keywords : Chagas disease; Vector control; Brazil.