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Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia

Print version ISSN 0066-782X

Abstract

OLIVEIRA JUNIOR, Silvio A. et al. Nutritional and cardiovascular profiles of normotensive and hypertensive rats kept on a high fat diet. Arq. Bras. Cardiol. [online]. 2009, vol.93, n.5, pp.526-533. ISSN 0066-782X.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0066-782X2009001100014.

BACKGROUND: Although a high fat diet (HFD) promotes nutritional and heart disorders, few studies have assessed its influence in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the nutritional and cardiovascular profiles of WKY and SHR on a high fat diet. METHODS: 20 WKY and 20 SHR were divided into four groups: Control-WKY (C-WKY), HFD-WKY, Control-SHR (C-SHR) and HFD-SHR. The C and HFD groups received, respectively, a normocaloric diet and a HFD for 20 weeks. The following features were evaluated: body weight (BW), adiposity, blood glucose, serum lipids, with measurements of total cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels, insulin and leptin. The cardiovascular study included the systolic blood pressure (SBP), a cardiopulmonary anatomical evaluation, an echocardiography and heart histology. RESULTS: The SHR had BW, adiposity, glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerol, leptin and insulin levels lower than the WKY. In SHR, the caloric intake increased with HFD. In WKY, the HFD increased energy efficiency, adiposity and blood leptin, and reduced glucose. In the cardiovascular assessment, the SHR had SBP, pulmonary moisture, myocardial hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis higher than the WKY (p <0.01); the cardiac function was similar in both strains. The HFD reduced the ventricular systolic diameter in the WKY and increased the mitral E/A ratio, the diastolic thickness of the interventricular septum and the posterior wall, as well as the interstitial fibrosis of the left ventricle. (Arq Bras Cardiol 2009; 93(5) : 487-494) CONCLUSION: Although it had not significantly affected the nutritional profile of the SHR, the treatment increased cardiac remodeling and precipitated the emergence of ventricular diastolic dysfunction. In WKY, the diet increased adiposity and leptinemia, and promoted non-significant cardiovascular changes.

Keywords : Diet; hyperlipidemias; rats; ventricular remodeling; hypertension.

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