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Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
Print version ISSN 0066-782X
SILVA JUNIOR, Otaviano da; MELO, Celso Salgado de; MARRA, Marcelo and CORREIA, Dalmo. Alternative endocardial sites for artificial cardiac stimulation. Arq. Bras. Cardiol. [online]. 2011, vol.96, n.1, pp. 76-85. ISSN 0066-782X. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0066-782X2011000100013.
The conventional right ventricular stimulation can be associated with deleterious effects on cardiac function. The need for a more physiological artificial cardiac stimulation is undoubtedly one of the most important points in the area of cardiac electrotherapy. The programming algorithms for the maintenance of adequate atrioventricular conduction, the stimulation of alternative endocardial sites and the cardiac resynchronization therapy are used with the objective of attaining these goals. The stimulation of the bundle of His and the septal stimulation have been studied as alternative endocardial sites for the positioning of the electrode on the right ventricle. The septal stimulation represents a simple and practical alternative, with no additional costs involved and with potential benefits in decreasing the deleterious effects of the right ventricular stimulation. However, this alternative site involves a heterogeneous group of patients and presents conflicting results regarding its long-term clinical benefit. This article reviews the scientific evidence on the alternative sites for right ventricular stimulation, with emphasis on the safety of the procedure, the measurement of the electrophysiological parameters, assessment of the left ventricular function and the clinical follow-up of patients.
Keywords : Pacemaker, artificial; septal stimulation; ventricular function, left.