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Iheringia. Série Zoologia
Print version ISSN 0073-4721
DIAS, Rafael A; GONCALVES, Maycon S. S and BASTAZINI, Vinicius A. G. First nesting record of the Bay-Capped Wren-Spinetail Spartonoica maluroides (Aves, Furnariidae) in Brazil, with nest and nestling descriptions and notes on breeding behavior. Iheringia, Sér. Zool. [online]. 2009, vol.99, n.4, pp.449-455. ISSN 0073-4721. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0073-47212009000400017.
The only breeding record of Spartonoica maluroides (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) for Brazil is based on the observation of a fledgling in southern Rio Grande do Sul in January 1976. On 7 December 2005 we discovered a nest containing three nestlings at the southeastern end of Lagoa Pequena, municipality of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul. The nest was concealed at the base of a cavity in a Spartina densiflora (Poaceae) tussock located at the edge of a saltmarsh. The nest was built of fine pieces of dead Scirpus olneyi (Cyperaceae) and S. densiflora leaves firmly interlaced to the internal leaves of the tussock. Live leaves of S. densiflora lining the cavity comprised a substantial part of the nest's architecture, forming most of its upper lateral walls and roof. The lower section was more elaborate, resembling a deep cup and forming a distinct incubation chamber. Adults reached the nest's interior through an irregular apical opening amidst the leaves. The nest was 244 mm high and 140 mm wide. The incubation chamber had an external diameter of 138.5 mm, an internal diameter of 79.4 mm and was 86 mm deep. It was lined with fine leaves and white plant fibers. Nestlings were five to six days old. A total of 107 neossoptiles restricted to the capital, spinal and alar tracts were recorded in one nestling. The distribution of neossoptiles in the ocular region of S. maluroides forms a distinct pattern which can be typical of Furnariidae and related families. Two adults attended the nest, bringing small insects to the nestlings and removing fecal sacs. We recorded at least 74 visits to the nest during a ca. 6 h period during an afternoon. The average number of visits per hour was 12.8 ± 1.3. An adult bird spent on average 0.7 ± 0.56 minutes inside the nest attending nestlings. The nest remained unattended on average for 3.61 ± 3.13 minutes. The hour of the day had no influence on the amount of time spent by an adult in the nest or away from it. We returned to the area on 15 December 2005 and found the nest abandoned. Observations confirm that S. maluroides is a resident breeder in southern Brazil and that the saltmarshes of the Lagoa do Patos estuary are an important year-round habitat for the species. A nestling and the nest were collected to document the record.
Keywords : Natal pterylosis; saltmarsh; conservation; Lagoa dos Patos; Rio Grande do Sul.