Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
versión impresa ISSN 0074-0276
MONTENEGRO-JAMES, Sonia. Prevalence and control of Babesiosis in the Americas. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz [online]. 1992, vol.87, suppl.3, pp. 27-36. ISSN 0074-0276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761992000700003.
This review presents up-to-date information on the distribution and control measures of babesiosis in Latin America. Bovine babesiosis caused by Babesia bovis and B. bigemia will be emphasized. The disease is endemic is most countries and poses a serious economic burdenon livestock production in the region (U.S.$1365 million/year, FAO, 1989). Of the estimated 250 million cattle in Central and South America, approximately 175 million (70%) are in tick-infested regions. Humid, tropical and subtropical areas favor development of the main vector, the one-host tick Boophilus microplus. In many regions bovine babesiosis is enzootically stable as consequence of a balanced host-parasite relationship. However, Latin America offers a wide range of epidemiologica conditions that are influenced by variations from tropical to cool climates and by susceptible purebred cattle that are regularly imported to upgrade local stocks. The control measures employed in most countries for babesiosis esentially rely on chemotherapy, use of acaricides for B. microplus, and to a lesser degree, on immunization methods. In general, these measures are expensive, time consuming, and in many cases, provide limited success. Finally, the zoonotic potential ob babesiosis will be addressd, with special emphasis on the situation in the United States. Even though bovine babesiosis has long been eradicated from the U.S.A., human babesiosis in endemic in the northeastern region of the country.
Palabras llave : Babesia bovis; Babesia bigemina; epidemiology; control in America.