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Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
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COSTA, LF et al. Respiratory viruses in children younger than five years old with acute respiratory disease from 2001 to 2004 in Uberlândia, MG, Brazil. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz [online]. 2006, vol.101, n.3, pp. 301-306. ISSN 0074-0276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02762006000300014.
The main viruses involved in acute respiratory diseases among children are: respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenzavirus (FLU), parainfluenzavirus (PIV), adenovirus (AdV), human rhinovirus (HRV), and the human metapneumovirus (hMPV). The purpose of the present study was to identify respiratory viruses that affected children younger than five years old in Uberlândia, Midwestern Brazil. Nasopharyngeal aspirates from 379 children attended at Hospital de Clínicas (HC/UFU), from 2001 to 2004, with acute respiratory disease, were collected and tested by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) to detect RSV, FLU A and B, PIV 1, 2, and 3 and AdV, and RT-PCR to detect HRV. RSV was detected in 26.4% (100/379) of samples, FLU A and B in 9.5% (36/379), PIV 1, 2 and 3 in 6.3% (24/379) and AdV in 3.7% (14/379). HRV were detected in 29.6% (112/379) of the negative and indeterminate samples tested by IFI. RSV, particularly among children less than six months of life, and HRV cases showed highest incidence. Negative samples by both IFA and RT-PCR might reflect the presence of other pathogens, such as hMPV, coronavirus, and bacteria. Laboratorial diagnosis constituted an essential instrument to determine the incidence of the most common viruses in respiratory infections among children in this region.
Keywords : respiratory viruses; respiratory disease; immunofluorescence assay; reverse transcription of polymerase chain reaction; children.