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Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

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MELLO, Francisco Campello do Amaral; FERNANDES, Carlos Augusto  and  GOMES, Selma de Andrade. Antiviral therapy against chronic hepatitis B in Brazil: high rates of lamivudine resistance mutations and correlation with HBV genotypes. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz [online]. 2012, vol.107, n.3, pp.317-325. ISSN 0074-0276.

The effectiveness of antiviral treatments of chronic hepatitis B has been poorly studied in Brazil. Here, hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA positivity, drug resistance mutations and their association with HBV genotypes were evaluated in chronically HBV-infected patients under different drug regimens in Brazil. The study involved 129 patients under interferon or nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy for a median treatment time of 12 months. One hundred and five (81%) of these patients were treated with lamivudine (LAM), either in monotherapy or in combination with newer drugs, such as entecavir (ETV) or tenofovir (TDF). High (37.5-100%) rates of HBV DNA positivity were observed with all but one drug regimen (LAM + ETV). However, patients that were treated with ETV alone, TDF alone or with LAM combination therapies had a mean viral load that was 3-4 log lower than patients treated with LAM monotherapy. Of the patients treated with LAM, 47% developed resistance mutations. HBV genotypes A (59.1%), D (30.3%) and F (9.1%) were found. There was no association between the presence of LAM resistance mutations and genotypes, HBeAg status or treatment duration. Nevertheless, the rtM204V mutation was observed more frequently (12/13, 92%) in genotype A than in the others (p = 0.023). Six out of nine isolates that contained the rtM204I mutation belonged to genotype D and half of them displayed a single mutation. Genotype D isolates with the rtM204V variant preferentially displayed a triple mutation, while genotype A preferentially displayed a double mutation (p = 0.04).

Keywords : HBV; therapy; lamivudine; antiviral drug resistance.

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