Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo
Print version ISSN 0100-0683
SANTOS, José Zilton Lopes et al. Phosphorus fractions in soil cultivated with corn as affected by different phosphates and application methods. Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Solo [online]. 2008, vol.32, n.2, pp. 705-714. ISSN 0100-0683. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-06832008000200025.
The land use history and management of fertilization influence the soil phosphorus supply capacity. In this study, the P fractions in a Red Argisol (Ultissol) of the cerrado region were evaluated under different application methods and with phosphorus sources of different solubility, after three successive corn crops. The area had already been fertilized and cultivated in the past and remained covered with Brachiaria grass. A randomized block design with four replications was used, in a 4 x 3 + 1 factorial scheme, involving four P sources at a rate of 180 kg ha-1 P2O5 (triple superphosphate, magnesium thermophosphate, Arad reactive rock phosphate, and Araxá rock phosphate), three application methods (broadcasted in the first year, in-furrow application in the first year, and annually in-furrow split applications), and a control plot (without P) as additional treatment. The applied P rate was based on the total P2O5 content of each fertilizer. After three corn cropping seasons, soil samples were collected at a depth of 0-20 cm to determine the P fractions. The interaction between P sources and application methods interferes with the P fractions in the soil towards the end of the growing season. In general, split fertilization resulted in a higher values of inorganic (all sources) and organic P fractions (soluble sources). The fact that the area had previously been fertilized and cultivated with Brachiaria grass influenced the treatment effects, as shown by the relatively high crop yield of the control treatment not fertilized with P. There are evidences for the participation of less-labile P fractions in P supply to corn due to the observed reduction of these fractions in the soil.
Keywords : Cerrado; phosphorus fractionation; phosphorus forms; organic phosphorus; phosphate fertilization.