Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo
On-line version ISSN 1806-9657
CHAVEZ, Luis Fernando et al. Carbon dioxide efflux in a rhodic hapludox as affected by tillage systems in southern Brazil. Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Solo [online]. 2009, vol.33, n.2, pp. 325-334. ISSN 1806-9657. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-06832009000200010.
Agricultural soils can act as a source or sink of atmospheric C, according to the soil management. This long-term experiment (22 years) was evaluated during 30 days in autumn, to quantify the effect of tillage systems (conventional tillage-CT and no-till-NT) on the soil CO2-C flux in a Rhodic Hapludox in Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil. A closed-dynamic system (Flux Chamber 6400-09, Licor) and a static system (alkali absorption) were used to measure soil CO2-C flux immediately after soybean harvest. Soil temperature and soil moisture were measured simultaneously with CO2-C flux, by Licor-6400 soil temperature probe and manual TDR, respectively. During the entire month, a CO2-C emission of less than 30 % of the C input through soybean crop residues was estimated. In the mean of a 30 day period, the CO2-C flux in NT soil was similar to CT, independent of the chamber type used for measurements. Differences in tillage systems with dynamic chamber were verified only in short term (daily evaluation), where NT had higher CO2-C flux than CT at the beginning of the evaluation period and lower flux at the end. The dynamic chamber was more efficient than the static chamber in capturing variations in CO2-C flux as a function of abiotic factors. In this chamber, the soil temperature and the water-filled pore space (WFPS), in the NT soil, explained 83 and 62 % of CO2-C flux, respectively. The Q10 factor, which evaluates CO2-C flux dependence on soil temperature, was estimated as 3.93, suggesting a high sensitivity of the biological activity to changes in soil temperature during fall season. The CO2-C flux measured in a closed dynamic chamber was correlated with the static alkali adsorption chamber only in the NT system, although the values were underestimated in comparison to the other, particularly in the case of high flux values. At low soil temperature and WFPS conditions, soil tillage caused a limited increase in soil CO2-C flux.
Keywords : no-till; greenhouse gases; soil temperature; soil moisture.