Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo
versión impresa ISSN 0100-0683
ALMEIDA, Jaime Antonio de; CARARO, Denis Cesar y UBERTI, Antônio Ayrton Auzani. Genesis of the sombric horizon in ultisols (red argisols) in southern Santa Catarina, Brazil. Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Solo [online]. 2009, vol.33, n.2, pp. 405-416. ISSN 0100-0683. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-06832009000200018.
Dark subsurface horizons, with properties similar to the sombric horizon characterized by the USA Soil Taxonomy, are frequent in Southern Brazil. The genesis of this horizon is controversial and poorly understood. This study aimed to describe the occurrence of sombric-like horizons in Ultisols in the South of Santa Catarina State, at low altitudes, and suggest possible processes of humus transference, accumulation and persistence in these horizons. Physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of four Ultisols were evaluated; three were sampled in a toposequence, and another representative one in an isolated profile (RSP). The dark subsurface horizons coincide with the AB and BA transitional genetic horizons; they are acid, low in base saturation, and have a similar clay mineralogy in all horizons. Very high amounts of Fe and Al extracted by ammonium oxalate and sodium pyrophosphate solution as well as maximum Al extracted by CuCl2 solution were observed in these dark subsurface horizons, indicating a possible migration of these elements in the form of organometallic complexes. The contents of Al plus ½ Fe extracted from the RSP soil horizons with ammonium oxalate indicated spodic materials in the sombric-like horizon, although the soil morphology was not compatible with Spodosols. Maximum contents of fine clay were also found in the sombric-like horizon, suggesting Fe and Al migration as clay-humic substances. However, the hypothesis that sombric-like horizons in these soils are a relict feature of a grass paleovegetation, different from the current dense seasonal forest, should not be discarded but investigated in further studies.
Palabras llave : dark subsurface horizon; podzolization; buried A horizon; clay-humic substances; climatic changes.