Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo
Print version ISSN 0100-0683
PIOVESAN, Ricardo Prado et al. Nutrient losses via leaching from soil columns submitted to mineral and organic fertilization. Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Solo [online]. 2009, vol.33, n.4, pp. 757-766. ISSN 0100-0683. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-06832009000400002.
The use of animal manure in agricultural systems can cause water contamination and/or pollution by nutrients, especially by consecutive applications to the same area. In view thereof, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of manure and fertilizer application on NH4+, NO3-, P and K leaching. For this evaluation, undisturbed soil columns were collected from a seven-year field experiment that consisted of 12 treatments, resulting from the combinations of four doses of dairy slurry with three doses of mineral fertilizers. The study has been conducted on an Oxisol under no-till system with a crop rotation including sorghum, corn, oat and ryegrass. The leaching experiment was conducted in a laboratory with the undisturbed soil columns collected in the field experiment. In the laboratory, these soil columns, analogously to the respective field treatments, were treated with dairy slurry manure (0, 30, 60 and 90 m³ ha-¹ applied in a single dose) and mineral fertilizers (0, 50 and 100 % of the recommended dose for corn - 120 kg of N, 60 kg of P2O5 and 60 kg of K2O per ha) application. Immediately after manure and fertilizer application, the percolated water was sampled and analyzed in five continuous periods, totalling 516 mm, which corresponded to approximately three pore volumes. An increase of NH4-N, P, and K with increasing manure doses and an increment in NO3-N and K with the higher mineral fertilizer doses was observed. However, in general, except for NO3-N, the NH4-N and P concentrations were below the limit value determined by the Brazilian legislation, indicating the importance of soil-water infiltration to reduce the manure pollution potential.
Keywords : nitrate; ammonium; phosphorus; potassium; leaching; dairy slurry manure; no till; water quality.