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Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo

On-line version ISSN 1806-9657

Abstract

GEBRIM, Fabrício de Oliveira et al. Mobility of inorganic and organic phosphorus forms under different levels of phosphate and poultry litter fertilization in soils. Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Solo [online]. 2010, vol.34, n.4, pp.1195-1205. ISSN 1806-9657.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-06832010000400019.

The eutrophication of aquifers is strongly linked to the mobility of P in soils. Although P mobility was considered irrelevant in a more distant past, more recent studies have shown that P, both in organic (Po) and inorganic forms (Pi), can be lost by leaching and eluviation through the soil profile, particularly in less weathered and/or sandier soils with low P adsorption capacity. The purpose of this study was to determine losses of P forms by leaching and eluviation from soil columns. Each column consisted of five PVC rings (diameter 5 cm, height 10 cm), filled with two soil types: a clayey Red-Yellow Latosol and a sandy loam Red-Yellow Latosol, which were exposed to water percolation. The soils were previously treated with four P rates (as KH2PO4 ) to reach 0, 12.5, 25.0 and 50 % of the maximum P adsorption capacity (MPAC). The P source was homogenized with the whole soil volume and incubated for 60 days. After this period the soils were placed in the columns; the soil of the top ring was mixed with five poultry litter rates of 0, 20, 40, 80, and 160 t ha-1 (dry weight basis). Treatments consisted of a 4 x 5 x 2 factorial scheme corresponding to four MPAC levels, five poultry litter rates, two soils, with three replications, arranged in a completely randomized block design. Deionized water was percolated through the columns 10 times in 35 days to simulate about 1,200 mm rainfall. In the leachate of each column the inorganic P (reactive P, Pi) and organic P forms (unreactive P, Po) were determined. At the end of the experiment, the columns were disassembled and P was extracted with the extractants Mehlich-1 (HCl 0.05 mol L-1 and H2SO4 0.0125 mol L-1) and Olsen (NaHCO3 0.5 mol L-1; pH 8.5) from the soil of each ring. The Pi and Po fractions were measured by the Olsen extractant. It was found that under higher poultry litter rates the losses of unreactive P (Po) were 6.4 times higher than of reactive P (Pi). Both the previous P fertilization and increasing poultry litter rates caused a vertical movement of P down the soil columns, as verified by P concentrations extracted by Mehlich-1 and NaHCO3 (Olsen). The environmental critical level (ECL), i.e., the P soil concentration above which P leaching increases exponentially, was 100 and 150 mg dm-3 by Mehlich-1 and 40 and 60 mg dm-3 by Olsen, for the sandy loam and clay soils, respectively. In highly weathered soils, where residual P is accumulated by successive crops, P leaching through the profile can be significant, particularly when poultry litter is applied as fertilizer.

Keywords : eutrophication; environmental critical level; Mehlich-1; Olsen.

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