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Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo

On-line version ISSN 1806-9657


GOBBI, Ederson et al. Water erosion associated to some hydrological variables in apple orchard under different soil managements. Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Solo [online]. 2011, vol.35, n.3, pp.1013-1024. ISSN 1806-9657.

Soil management in perennial crops such as orchards can influence erosion. This study evaluated soil and water losses from an Oxisol under simulated rain, from August 2007 to April 2008, at the experimental station of Embrapa Uva e Vinho, in Vacaria (RS). On the 3.5 m x 11 m plots, rains of one hour were simulated at a constant intensity of 70 to 88 mm h-1. In the apple orchard, the following soil management systems were studied: i) manual weeding under apple trees and spontaneous grass and legume cover in the rest of the area (ST), ii) undesiccated oat cover, hoeing the seeds into the soil at weeding in the entire area, two months before the first rain test (NO), iii) oat cover chemically desiccated seven days before the first rain test, planted by a rotary hoe to incorporate seeds into the soil in the entire area, two months before the tests (DO); and iv) uncovered soil with removal of the previously desiccated spontaneous cover from the soil surface by weeding the entire area with a hoe, one day before each rain test (BS). The management systems related to the soil cover in the apple orchard and the rain tests influenced water erosion. Soil losses varied considerably in the treatments, more than water losses. Even with soil mobilization in the entire area for oat planting in the NO and DO treatments the control effectiveness of water erosion was equal to the ST treatment in which the soil was mobilized only under the trees. The removal of the soil cover from under apple trees greatly increased soil losses in relation to the cover maintenance, but had only little influence on water losses. The runoff duration influenced soil loss; an increase of this variable was observed with increasing runoff duration until a certain moment and, from then on, it decreased independently of the treatment; water loss increased until a certain moment and stabilized. An inverse relationship was observed between soil and water losses, independently of the soil management system under apple trees, adjusting to an exponential model.

Keywords : Erosion in orchard; simulated rainfall; hydrogram; sedimentgram.

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