Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo
On-line version ISSN 1806-9657
CRUSCIOL, Carlos Alexandre Costa; GARCIA, Rodrigo Arroyo; CASTRO, Gustavo Spadotti Amaral and ROSOLEM, Ciro Antonio. Nitrate role in basic cation leaching under no-till. Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Solo [online]. 2011, vol.35, n.6, pp.1975-1984. ISSN 1806-9657. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-06832011000600014.
Especially under no-tillage, subsuface soil acidity has been a problem, because it depends on base leaching, which has been associated with the presence of low molecular weigth organic acids and companion anions. The objective of this study was to evaluate exchangeable base cation leaching as affected by surface liming along with annual urea side-dressing of maize and upland rice. Treatments consisted of four lime rates (0, 1500, 3000, and 6000 kg ha-1) combined with four nitrogen rates (0, 50, 100, and 150 kg ha-1) applied to maize (Zea mays) and upland rice (Oryza sativa), in two consecutive years. Maize was planted in December, three months after liming. In September of the following year, pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) was planted without fertilization and desiccated 86 days after plant emergence. Afterwards, upland rice was grown. Immediately after upland rice harvest, 18 months after surface liming, pH and N-NO3-, N-NH4+, K, Ca, and Mg levels were evaluated in soil samples taken from the layers 0-5, 5-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm. Higher maize yields were obtained at higher N rates and 3000 kg ha-1 lime. Better results for upland rice and pearl millet yields were also obtained with this lime rate, irrespective of N levels. The vertical mobility of K, Ca and Mg was higher in the soil profiles with N fertilization. Surface liming increased pH in the upper soil layers causing intense nitrate production, which was leached along with the base cations.
Keywords : lime; nitrogen fertilization; nutrient cycling; tropical soils.