Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo
On-line version ISSN 1806-9657
PRAGANA, Rossanna Barbosa; NOBREGA, Rafaela Simão Abrahão; RIBEIRO, Mateus Rosas and LUSTOSA FILHO, José Ferreira. Effect of cropping systems on biological properties and organic matter dynamics of Yellow Oxisols in the Cerrado region of Piauí, Brazil. Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Solo [online]. 2012, vol.36, n.3, pp.851-858. ISSN 1806-9657. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-06832012000300015.
The intensive use of soils in the Cerrado biome has caused modifications in soil properties, as well as in the performance and quality of organic matter. The Cerrado of Piauí has been exploited without due concern for the preservation of natural resources, where production systems are characterized by intensive land use. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of the agricultural use in altering the biological properties and dynamics of organic matter of Yellow Oxisols cultivated with soybean. This research was carried out in the "Serra do Quilombo", located in the Cerrado region of Piauí state. To assess changes in soil properties, induced by agricultural use, soil samples were collected from sites with different use history involving conventional and no tillage systems; PC7/PD8 - seven years of conventional agriculture followed by eight years of no-tillage; PC5/PD4 - five years of conventional system followed by four years of no-tillage; PC3/PD3 - three years of conventional system and three years of no-tillage and CN - native cerrado vegetation. The evaluated soil properties were basal respiration, microbial biomass C, metabolic quotient, microbial quotient, total organic C and total N. Physical fractionation was used to evaluate organic matter dynamics. The results were subjected to variance analysis and showed that the soil management under conventional cultivation and subsequent implantation of no-tillage system affected soil biological properties in relation to the soil under native cerrado vegetation. The replacement of native cerrado by annual no-tillage crops reduces the levels of microbial biomass C and total N and elevates the basal respiration in treatments after three and four years of no tillage, indicating that these periods are insufficient to improve the above properties. The increase in the time of land use with no tillage decreases the level of particulate organic C and maintains the C-associated minerals in relation to the soil under native cerrado vegetation.
Keywords : microbial activity; organic fractions; management system; soil use.