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Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo
On-line version ISSN 1806-9657
SILVA, Douglas Ramos Guelfi et al. Characterization and nutrient release from silicate rocks and influence on chemical changes in soil. Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Solo [online]. 2012, vol.36, n.3, pp.951-962. ISSN 1806-9657. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-06832012000300025.
The expansion of Brazilian agriculture has led to a heavy dependence on imported fertilizers to ensure the supply of the growing food demand. This fact has contributed to a growing interest in alternative nutrient sources, such as ground silicate rocks. It is necessary, however, to know the potential of nutrient release and changes these materials can cause in soils. The purpose of this study was to characterize six silicate rocks and evaluate their effects on the chemical properties of treated soil, assessed by chemical extractants after greenhouse incubation. The experimental design consisted of completely randomized plots, in a 3 x 6 factorial scheme, with four replications. The factors were potassium levels (0-control: without silicate rock application; 200; 400; 600 kg ha-1 of K2O), supplied as six silicate rock types (breccia, biotite schist, ultramafic rock, phlogopite schist and two types of mining waste). The chemical, physical and mineralogical properties of the alternative rock fertilizers were characterized. Treatments were applied to a dystrophic Red-Yellow Oxisol (Ferralsol), which was incubated for 100 days, at 70 % (w/w) moisture in 3.7 kg/pots. The soil was evaluated for pH; calcium and magnesium were extracted with KCl 1 mol L-1; potassium, phosphorus and sodium by Mehlich 1; nickel, copper and zinc with DTPA; and the saturation of the cation exchange capacity was calculated for aluminum, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium, and overall base saturation. The alternative fertilizers affected soil chemical properties. Ultramafic rock and Chapada mining byproduct (CMB) were the silicate rocks that most influenced soil pH, while the mining byproduct (MB) led to high K levels. Zinc availability was highest in the treatments with mining byproduct and Cu in soil fertilized with Chapada and mining byproduct.
Keywords : multi-nutrient fertilizer; nutrient available; potassic rock; rock powder; soil amendment.