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Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo

versão On-line ISSN 1806-9657

Resumo

DRESCHER, Marta Sandra et al. Penetration resistance and soybean yield after mechanical intervention on an oxisol under tillage. Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Solo [online]. 2012, vol.36, n.6, pp.1836-1844. ISSN 1806-9657.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-06832012000600018.

Compaction negatively affects a number of soil properties, e.g., resistance to root penetration and water and nutrient availability to plants, restricting the photosynthetic rate, shoot growth and consequently, the yield. When soil compaction becomes limiting to crop development, mitigation measures must be adopted. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the residual effect of mechanical soil plowing and chiseling, by a seeder with soil breakers (disks and disks plus short ripper) as mitigation practice of the soil compaction under no-tillage (NT), on soil penetration resistance and soybean yield. In 2001, a study was conducted in Coxilha, in northern Rio Grande do Sul, on an Oxisol, in an area with a sequence of NT management. In this field, every year a treatment of mechanical soil decompression was applied, consisting of plowing and chiseling the soil under NT, before sowing the summer crop, reassuming the NT management after this intervention. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks in a split-plot design with three replications. The treatments consisted of a combination of 13 systems of soil management in the main plots and two seed drill devices in the subplots. Thus, the management systems were evaluated by the control, represented by the uninterrupted maintenance of NT for 16 years, six NT management periods (7.5, 6.5, 5.5, 4.5, 3.5, and 2.5 years) after one intervention with mechanical disc plow + disc harrow (A) and the same six NT management periods after one mechanical intervention with chiseling (E). The levels in the subplots consisted of the action of a no-till seeder equipped with double discs reaching a depth of 7 cm and a seeder equipped with double disks + short ripper reaching a depth of 13 cm. Results indicated that the mitigating effect on compaction and on the improvement of soil structure of the mechanical intervention in soil under consolidated NT consisting of soil chiseling or plowing is short-lived, with a residual effect of up to two and a half years for penetration resistance. The use of a no-till seeder drill equipped with short ripper + disc seeder has potential for mitigation of soil compaction, by reducing mechanical penetration resistance in the 7-15 cm layer. Nevertheless, the residual effect of mechanical intervention for soil decompaction and the adoption of different devices for fertilizer application in the plant furrow were not effective in altering the soybean yield in the 2008/2009 growing season.

Palavras-chave : soil density; soil compaction; soil preparation.

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