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Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo

Print version ISSN 0100-0683On-line version ISSN 1806-9657


ALTHAUS, Daiana et al. Natural Fertility and Metals Contents in Soils of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Solo [online]. 2018, vol.42, e0160418.  Epub Feb 01, 2018. ISSN 0100-0683.

The parent geological materials and formation factors influence the chemical, physical, and mineralogical properties and composition of the soil. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine the chemical and some physical and mineralogical properties of the soil useful for agricultural practice; to determine the natural contents of the semitotal metals in soils of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); and to suggest use of the quality reference values (QRVs) in accordance with Resolution 420/2009 of the National Commission for the Environment (Conama). To determine some soil properties useful for agricultural, 254 surface soil samples from areas without known human influence (native grasslands or forests) were analyzed according to the methodology used by the soil testing laboratories of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. In addition, the semitotal heavy metal (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) contents of the soil were determined by the Usepa 3050B method and Hg was determined through an adaptation of the Usepa 7471 method. The results were studied in five soil groups from the state of Rio Grande do Sul according to soil parent materials: (1) basalt (volcanic rocks) of the Plateau region, (2) crystalline rocks (granite, schists, etc.) of the Southern Shield, (3) pelitic rocks (siltstones, mudstones, etc.) of the Peripheral Depression, (4) sandstones (sedimentary) of the Central Plains, and (5) sediments (unconsolidated) of the Coastal Plains. The properties for agricultural use of these soils were compared using the criteria adopted by the current fertilizer recommendations for the state. Multivariate analysis was used to study metals contents. Average values of available P contents were low in all soil groups; however, average values were high in several soil groups for available K. Averages of total acidity and cation exchange capacity were higher in Group 1 soils. The average values of extractable Zn, Cu, and S were high in all soils. Averages of Fe oxides were higher in the soils formed over basalt than in the other soils. Average metal (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) contents were higher in Group 1 soils than in the other soil groups (2 to 5). For Hg, however, average values were similar for all soil groups. The Spearman correlation coefficients were positive and highest among the metals (except for Cd and Hg) and the clay, Fed, and extractable Cu soil properties. Another high positive correlation coefficient was found between semitotal Cu and Zn contents and organic carbon. The QRVs for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn, determined according to Conama Resolution 420/2009, followed the same trend as the average metals contents.

Keywords : native soils; chemical properties; heavy metals; quality reference values.

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