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Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo

versão impressa ISSN 0100-0683versão On-line ISSN 1806-9657


LUZ, Silmara da Correia et al. Performance of Flooded Rice Grown in Succession to Winter Cover Crops. Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Solo [online]. 2018, vol.42, e0160461.  Epub 15-Fev-2018. ISSN 1806-9657.

Mean grain yield of flooded rice in southern Brazil has increased in recent years due to the use of high-yield cultivars and improvement of crop management practices. Nevertheless, stagnation in grain yields has been observed in some rice-producing regions. Adoption of conservation tillage systems based on cover crops may be a strategy to increase rice grain yield potential. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of winter cover crops on initial establishment, development, and grain yield of flooded rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown under different fertilization levels and no-tillage. A field experiment was carried out for three consecutive years (2010/11, 2011/12, and 2012/13) in Cachoeirinha, Rio Grande do Sul, South Brazil. Treatments included three winter cover crops [ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), native serradella (Ornithopus micranthus Benth.), and a ryegrass-serradella mixture] and fallow, and three fertilization levels for rice grown in succession. More than 3 Mg ha−1 of serradella aboveground residue or 4 Mg ha−1 of ryegrass residue limited rice emergence in the first year when rainfall in the sowing-emergence period was higher than in the second and third years. In contrast, a large amount of residue (serradella >2 Mg ha−1; ryegrass >3 Mg ha−1) was beneficial to rice emergence when rainfall was low in the sowing-emergence period of the second and third years. The serradella cover crop increased rice aboveground biomass at anthesis by 22 % compared to the ryegrass cover crop. Furthermore, rice grain yield was 15 % higher in succession to serradella than to ryegrass in the third year. Continuous cultivation of flooded rice in succession to ryegrass over three years reduced grain yield by around 1.4 Mg ha−1, regardless of fertilization level. Fertilization for very high production expectations increased rice grain yield in all years, especially in the second year, when solar radiation was higher than normal. The use of winter cover crops affected plant emergence, aboveground biomass, and grain yield of flooded rice. Rice grain yield increased with increases in fertilization level, and this response was not affected by the previous cover crop.

Palavras-chave : grain yield; plant development; fertilizer rate; fertilization response.

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