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Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira
Print version ISSN 0100-204X
STRECK, Nereu Augusto; UHLMANN, Lilian Osmari and GABRIEL, Luana Fernandes. Long-term changes in rice development in Southern Brazil, during the last ten decades. Pesq. agropec. bras. [online]. 2012, vol.47, n.6, pp.727-737. ISSN 0100-204X. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-204X2012000600001.
The objective of this work was to test long-term trends in the duration of rice development phases in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. The duration from emergence to V3 (EM-V3), emergence to panicle differentiation (EM-R1), emergence to anthesis (EM-R4), and emergence to all grains with brown hull (EM-R9) was calculated using leaf appearance and developmental models for four rice cultivars (IRGA 421, IRGA 417, EPAGRI 109, and EEA 406), for the period from 1912 to 2011, considering three emergence dates (early, mid, and late). The trend of the time series was tested with the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test, and the magnitude of the trend was estimated with simple linear regression. Rice development has changed over the last ten decades in this location, leading to an anticipation of harvest time of 17 to 31 days, depending on the cultivar maturity group and emergence date, which is related to trends of temperature increase during the growing season. Warmer temperatures over the evaluated time period are responsible for changing rice phenology in this location, since minimum and maximum daily temperature drive the rice developmental models used.
Keywords : Oryza sativa; development rate; global warming; growing season; maturity group; modeling; phenology.