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Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura

versão impressa ISSN 0100-2945versão On-line ISSN 1806-9967

Resumo

MARIANO, Renata Gomes de Brito; COURI, Sonia  e  FREITAS, Suely Pereira. Enzymatic technology to improve oil extraction from Caryocar brasiliense camb. (Pequi) Pulp.. Rev. Bras. Frutic. [online]. 2009, vol.31, n.3, pp.637-643. ISSN 0100-2945.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-29452009000300003.

The present study aims to compare yield and quality of pequi pulp oil when applying two distinct processes: in the first, pulp drying in a tray dryer at 60ºC was combined with enzymatic treatment and pressing to oil extraction; in the second, a simple process was carried out by combining sun-drying pulp and pressing. In this study, raw pequi fruits were collected in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The fruits were autoclaved at 121ºC and stored under refrigeration. An enzymatic extract with pectinase and CMCase activities was used for hydrolysis of pequi pulp, prior to oil extraction. The oil extractions were carried out by hydraulic pressing, with or without enzymatic incubation. The oil content in the pequi pulp (45% w/w) and the physicochemical characteristic of the oil was determined according to standard analytical methods. Free fatty acids, peroxide values, iodine and saponification indices were respectively 1.46 mgKOH/g, 2.98 meq/kg, 49.13 and 189.40. The acidity and peroxide values were lower than the obtained values in commercial oil samples, respectively 2.48 mgKOH/g and 5.22 meq/kg. Aqueous extraction has presented lower efficiency and higher oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. On the other hand, pequi pulp pressing at room temperature has produced better quality oil. However its efficiency is still smaller than the combined enzymatic treatment and pressing process. This combined process promotes cellular wall hydrolysis and pulp viscosity reduction, contributing to at least 20% of oil yield increase by pressing.

Palavras-chave : Caryocar brasiliense; sun drying; hydraulic pressing; oil quality index.

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