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Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura
Print version ISSN 0100-2945
FACHINELLO, José Carlos; PASA, Mateus da Silveira; SCHMTIZ, Juliano Dutra and BETEMPS, Débora Leitzke. Situation and perspectives of temperate fruit crops in Brazil. Rev. Bras. Frutic. [online]. 2011, vol.33, n.spe1, pp.109-120. ISSN 0100-2945. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-29452011000500014.
Fruticulture is present in all Brazilian states, and as economic activity, involves around five million people, directly and indirectly. Brazil is the third largest fruit producer, with output of around 40 million tons a year, but has only 2% of global trade industry, which demonstrates the high domestic consumption. The Brazilian fruit growing area is approximately 1.9 million hectares of which 1,034,708 hectares of tropical fruits, 928,552 ha of subtropical fruits and 135,857 ha of temperate species. Among the fruits of temperate climate, are table and wine grapes (81,677 ha), apples (39,081 ha), peaches, plums and nectarines (19,102 ha), persimmons (8,740 ha), strawberries, blackberries, raspberries , blueberries (3,560 ha), figs (3,072 ha), pears (1,404 ha) and quinces (211 ha). Even with a smaller area than the species of tropical and subtropical climate, the temperate fruits have a social importance, highlighted in several regions of southern Brazil, which corresponds to the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Parana, of southeastern Brazil, Sao Paulo and Minas Gerais, and in the São Francisco Valley region, in northeasten Brazil, either as fresh crops, agribusiness and/or agrotourism. Brazilian exports of fruits in recent years have been very positive, both in volume and in value. In 1998 Brazil exported 294,222 tons of fruits, whereas in 2008 exported 887,978 tons, representing a 201.8% increase in export volume. The main fruits that contributed to this significant increase were melon, mango, banana, apple and grape, with an increase in export volume between 1998 and 2008 of 226, 242, 91, 948 and 1766% respectively. The production of quality fruits in the temperate regions of southeastern Brazil needs genetic and breeding programs and studies on agricultural management, as well as on plant physiology to adapt them to the mild winter and to the range of temperatures, very frequent in major Brazilian regions. The long summers and precipitation excess cause many diseases and pests, which often requires pesticide treatments in excess. The management of the orchards with integrated fruit production is enabling the production of high quality fruits and at the same time is reducing the environmental impact of the activity. The challenges are related to climate changes, the necessity of pesticide use reduction and supplies, the fruit handling pre-and post-harvest, and to the need for logistics to suit the different markets, the control of pests and diseases and the breeding programs, in order to meet the new demands of each temperate species.
Keywords : Brazil; fruit production; exportation; importation; domestic consumption.