versão impressa ISSN 0100-4042
LOWINSOHN, Denise e BERTOTTI, Mauro. Electrochemical sensors: fundamentals and applications in microenvironments. Quím. Nova [online]. 2006, vol.29, n.6, pp. 1318-1325. ISSN 0100-4042. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-40422006000600029.
Electrochemical sensors have attracted considerable attention in recent years because they provide data about the chemical state of our surroundings and the dynamics of the chemical transformations in the form a spatially resolved image. Particular interest has been directed to measurements in restricted-volume samples as new technologies enable the fabrication of miniaturized versions of sensors with reproducible characteristics. Taking these aspects into consideration, this review focuses on the use of electrodes of micrometer dimensions to acquire chemical information in microdomains in which concentrations may not be spatially homogeneous. This is possible because microelectrodes allow fast-response measurements with micrometer resolution to be performed. On the other hand, the use of microelectrodes as amperometric sensors presents an inherent drawback owing to the insufficient specificity toward the substrate of interest. Hence, some comments on strategies to enhance the selectivity of amperometric sensors are also made. Finally, recent applications of structurally microscopic electrodes as in vivo sensors are shown, as well as a prospect of the future trend in this field.
Palavras-chave : electrochemical sensors; microelectrodes; in vivo measurements.