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On-line version ISSN 1678-7064
VASCONCELOS, Sandra Mary Lima et al. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, antioxidants and markers of oxidative damage in human blood: main analytical methods for their determination. Quím. Nova [online]. 2007, vol.30, n.5, pp. 1323-1338. ISSN 1678-7064. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-40422007000500046.
We review here the chemistry of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, their biological sources and targets; particularly, biomolecules implicated in the redox balance of the human blood, and appraise the analytical methods available for their detection and quantification. Those biomolecules are represented by the enzymatic antioxidant defense machinery, whereas coadjutant reducing protection is provided by several low molecular weight molecules. Biomolecules can be injured by RONS yielding a large repertoire of oxidized products, some of which can be taken as biomarkers of oxidative damage. Their reliable determination is of utmost interest for their potentiality in diagnosis, prevention and treatment of maladies.
Keywords : biomarkers of oxidative stress; oxidative and nitrosative stress; antioxidants.