On-line version ISSN 1678-4677
COSTAMILAN, Leila M.. Variability of the wheat powdery mildew pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici in the 2003 crop season. Fitopatol. bras. [online]. 2005, vol.30, n.4, pp. 420-422. ISSN 1678-4677. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-41582005000400015.
Wheat (Triticum aestivum) powdery mildew, caused by the biotrophic fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most severe foliar diseases attacking this crop, reducing grain yields by 10% to 62% in Brazil. The disease can be controlled by genetic resistance of the host, but the pathogen has physiological specialization, which enables it to infect wheat cultivars that have remained resistant for years. The objective of this work was to evaluate the variability of pathogenic strains of B. graminis f. sp. tritici collected in Brazil and the effectiveness of wheat resistance genes to powdery mildew in the 2003 crop season. Plants of a differential series were inoculated with each monopustular isolate. Thirty-one combinations of effective and ineffective resistance genes were identified. Only the gene Pm4a+... remained totally effective to all isolates, and gene Pm6 was highly effective (below 10% of susceptibility), whereas genes Pm3a and Pm8 were totally ineffective (susceptible to all isolates). Genes Pm3c, D1, and D2 showed low effectiveness (above 50% of susceptibility), and genes Pm1, 2, 4a, 1+?, and 2+Mld had mean effective results to most strains (susceptibility between 10% and 49%). The virulence formula Pm1, 3c, 4a, 6, 1+?, 2+Mld, 4a+..., D2 (effective genes) / 2, 3a, 8, D1 (ineffective genes) was most frequently found, accounting for 15% of the occurrences. The most frequent number of ineffective genes was seven, ranging from three to ten.
Keywords : Erisyphe graminis f. sp. tritici; Triticum aestivum; genetic of populations; physiological specialization.