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COSTA, Antonio Carlos T. et al. Optimal environmental conditions for induction of germination and infection of Puccinia substriata var. penicillariae in different pearl millet cultivars. Fitopatol. bras. [online]. 2007, vol.32, n.5, pp.400-407. ISSN 0100-4158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-41582007000500005.
The rust caused by Puccinia substriata var. penicillariae in Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) induces yield losses in this forage crop. Considering the lack of information about this disease in Brazil, this research on its epidemiology has been carried out. The mean latency period, the frequency of infection process and size of lesions on four genotypes of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) ENA 1, Composto II, BRS 1501 and HKP were evaluated in the greenhouse. In vitro, the germination of the urediniospores was monitored at different temperatures (10, 15, 20 and 25ºC), with or without light. After this, the infection process was compared for the genotypes Guerguera, Souna III, BRS 1501 and ENA 1, in a growth chamber, with the leaf wetting time of 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 hours, with or without light, and in greenhouse, on the genotypes ENA 1, Guerguera and Souna III, with the leaf wetting times of 3/4, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours. A mean latency period for pearl millet rust between 10 and 12 days was shown, and the urediniospores germinated in a wide range of temperatures, from 10 to 25ºC, with or without light, with a maximum germination at 17.5ºC in the dark. In these conditions, the germination of first spores initiated for less than 45 min at a maximum percentage of 88.2%, with 1.7 h of incubation. Leaf infection can also start after 45 min of leaf wetting after inoculation, but there is a beneficial effect of dark and longer leaf wetting time.
Keywords : Etiology; epidemiology; environment; leaf wetting.