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Kriterion: Revista de Filosofia

versão impressa ISSN 0100-512Xversão On-line ISSN 1981-5336

Resumo

NOVAES, Catarina Dutilh. THE FORMAL AND THE FORMALIZED: THE CASES OF SYLLOGISTIC AND SUPPOSITION THEORY. Kriterion [online]. 2015, vol.56, n.131, pp.253-270. ISSN 0100-512X.  https://doi.org/10.1590/0100-512X2015n13114cdn.

As a discipline, logic is arguably constituted of two main sub-projects: formal theories of argument validity on the basis of a small number of patterns, and theories of how to reduce the multiplicity of arguments in non-logical, informal contexts to the small number of patterns whose validity is systematically studied (i.e. theories of formalization). Regrettably, we now tend to view logic 'proper' exclusively as what falls under the first sub-project, to the neglect of the second, equally important sub-project. In this paper, I discuss two historical theories of argument formalization: Aristotle's syllogistic theory as presented in the "Prior Analytics", and medieval theories of supposition. They both illustrate this two-fold nature of logic, containing in particular illuminating reflections on how to formalize arguments (i.e. the second sub-project). In both cases, the formal methods employed differ from the usual modern technique of translating an argument in ordinary language into a specially designed symbolism, a formal language. The upshot is thus a plea for a broader conceptualization of what it means to formalize.

Palavras-chave : Syllogistic; Aristotle; supposition theory; formalization.

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