Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões
Print version ISSN 0100-6991
REIS NETO, José Alfredo dos et al. Cancer of the lower rectum: preoperative radiotherapy, total peri-rectal excision and laparoscopic approach. Rev. Col. Bras. Cir. [online]. 1999, vol.26, n.1, pp. 33-38. ISSN 0100-6991. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-69911999000100008.
Twenty-four patients (1993-1997) with cancer of the lower rectum (tumors situated between the pectinate line and four cm above it) underwent abdominoperineal excision by laparoscopic approach and its results were studied and analyzed. Only adenocarcinoma tumors were evaluated regardless of age and gender. All patients were submitted to preoperative radiotherapy (4.000 cGy) and operated on ten days after the end of the irradiation. The anatomic observation of the specimens excised by laparoscopy led to the conclusion that a total mesorrectum excision (total peri-rectal excision) was achieved in 91.3% of the patients. Preoperative radiotherapy did not create intra-operative hazard or change the surgical procedure. None of the patients had intra-operative rupture of the tumor or pelvic spillage of carcinomatous cells. The extension of linfonodal excision was similar to the one obtained by open surgery, with an average of 12 lymphnodes dissected by specimen, with positive perirrectal lymphnodes in 33.3% of the patients, or in 72.7% of the patients with Dukes C tumors and in 100% of the tumors with low grade of cellular differentiation. The proportion of positivity (number of metastatic lymphnodes in relation to the number of extirpated lymphnodes) varied from a minimum of 11.11% to a maximum of 75%. The rate of local recurrence observed after abdominoperineal excision of the rectum by laparoscopic approach with total excision of the perirretum in patients previously irradiated was of 4.2%, patient with Dukes C tumor and low grade of cellular differentiation. There were no portal implantation in the series.
Keywords : Videolaparoscopy; Rectal Cancer; Abdominoperineal excision; Total mesorectal excision; oral peri-rectal excision; Preoperative radiotherapy.