Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões
versão impressa ISSN 0100-6991
COUTINHO, José Ricardo Hildebrandt. Premalignant screening for anal lesions: anal cytology and high resolution anoscopy. New resources for prevention. Rev. Col. Bras. Cir. [online]. 2006, vol.33, n.5, pp. 311-317. ISSN 0100-6991. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-69912006000500010.
Squamous anal cell carcinoma frequency has been changing during the last decades. It was a rare disease in the past with 0.2 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in Denmark before the 60’s and 0.5 per 100,000 in the United States of America (USA) in 1973. Currently these figures have risen to a 1.00 / 100,000 ratio in accordance with the public records in the USA. Although the incidence in the general population can still be considered low, regardless of having doubled during the past 30 years, some specific groups in the population seem to have a higher level of risk, with a ratio of 70 ocurrences per each group of 100,000 individuals. The relationship between infections caused by oncogenic types of human papillomavirus and the similarity with cervical squamous cell carcinoma lead us to believe that screening techniques similar to the ones used as from the 40’s aiming the control of the cervical carcinoma, such as Papanicolaou smear (anal cytology) and colposcopy (high resolution anoscopy), may be effective on anal cancer prevention in those specific groups, or at least, to its early diagnosis. This article presents the techniques for tracking these early anal cancer lesions justifying them as a Public Health point of view.
Palavras-chave : Anal canal [cytology]; Anus neoplasms; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell; Mass screening; Proctoscopy; Colposcopy; Papillomavirus, human; Public health.