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Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira

Print version ISSN 0100-736XOn-line version ISSN 1678-5150

Abstract

MARTIN, Cláudia Matsunaga; KOGIKA, Marcia Mery; MIYASHIRO, Samantha Ive  and  FONSECA-PINTO, Ana Carolina Brandão de Campos. B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography in the renal evaluation of dogs undergoing computed tomography after intravenous administration of different iodinated contrast media. Pesq. Vet. Bras. [online]. 2017, vol.37, n.7, pp.759-772. ISSN 0100-736X.  https://doi.org/10.1590/s0100-736x2017000700018.

Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is an acute disease, secondary to intravascular administration of iodinated contrast media (ICM). The most important mechanisms of this nephropathy are intrarenal prolonged vasoconstriction, medular hypoxia, and ischemia associated with renal tubular damage due to contrast cytotoxicity. Owing to the limited information available in veterinary literature regarding these mechanisms this study aims to compare the renal effects of intravenous administration of two nonionic ICM of different osmolarities in groups of dogs with risk factors for CIN development, by using a B-mode, color, power- and pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasonography, and other laboratory tests, in order to indirectly estimate the nephrotoxic potential of each contrast. The following two groups were established according to the nonionic ICM used: the GIH group [11 dogs administered iohexol (low osmolarity)] and the GID group [seven dogs administered iodixanol (iso-osmolarity)]. Both the groups were administered the same dose (600mgI/kg/IV). The following renal aspects were evaluated before administration of ICM (baseline) and after 1h30min, 24h, and 48h: renal morphometry (length and volume), renal morphology, cortical echogenicity, renal perfusion, and intrarenal vascular resistance (resistive and pulsatility indices); in addition, urinalysis was performed, and urinary gamma-glutamyl transferase:creatinine ratio (GGT:C), urinary protein:creatinine ratio (UPC), and serum creatinine were also measured. Both groups showed similar characteristics with respect to the length, volume, UPC ratio, urinalysis, and serum creatinine levels. No similarity was observed with respect to the pulsatility index (PI) in both the groups and there were no significant differences between baseline and 1h30min, 24h and 48h time points. With respect to the IR and urinary GGT:C, both groups showed no similarity, and significant increases were observed in the resistive index (RI) and urinary GGT:C only in the GIH group, 1h30min after contrast administration. In conclusion, RI can be used to monitor intrarenal hemodynamics, and along with the urinary GGT:C, revealed that iohexol had higher nephrotoxic potential than iodixanol. Thus, iodixanol is considered a favorable option for dogs with risk factors for CIN development.

Keywords : B-mode; Doppler ultrasonography; kidneys; intravenous iodinated contrast media; nephrotoxicity; radiocontrast media; osmolarity; dog..

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