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Print version ISSN 0100-8358On-line version ISSN 1806-9681
KRAEMER, A.F. et al. Environmental fate of imidazolinone herbicides: a review. Planta daninha [online]. 2009, vol.27, n.3, pp.629-639. ISSN 0100-8358. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-83582009000300025.
The herbicides of the imidazolinone group control a wide range of weed species. They are absorbed by weed roots and leaves and transported through the phloem and xylem, accumulating in the plant growing points. They inhibit the enzyme acetolactate synthase (ALS), which synthesizes the branched chain amino acids. When used in the field, a large portion of these herbicides reach the soil, where they can be absorbed by the roots of plants, sorbed into the soil colloids, or dissolved in soil solution, going through photolysis, hydrolysis, microbial degradation or leaching. The sorption of imidazolinone is faster and affects other processes. High contents of clay, organic matter and pH lower than 6.0 contribute to enhance the sorption and persistence of imidazolinones in soil. The most important way of dissipation is by microbial degradation, thus conditions favoring microbial development will also enhance imidazolinone degradation.
Keywords : degradation; photolysis; hydrolysis; mode of action; persistence; sorption.