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Brazilian Journal of Botany

Print version ISSN 0100-8404On-line version ISSN 1806-9959

Abstract

SILVA, LUZIMAR CAMPOS DA; AZEVEDO, ARISTÉA ALVES; SILVA, ELDO ANTÔNIO MONTEIRO DA  and  OLIVA, MARCO ANTONIO. Fluoride in simulated rain: symptomatology and effects on leaf structure and growth of wood plants. Rev. bras. Bot. [online]. 2000, vol.23, n.4, pp.385-393. ISSN 0100-8404.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-84042000000400004.

The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of fluoride on seedlings and young plants of native woody species from Parque Estadual do Rio Doce (MG) and on the leaf blade structure of the most sensitive of the studied tree species. This work was carried out to gain information on diagnosing criteria for bioindication and to throw some light on the mechanisms of plant resistance and tolerance in order to assist in the revegetation programs of highly affected areas. The employed species were Gallesia gorazema Moq. (Phytolaccaceae), Genipa americana L. (Rubiaceae), Joannesia princeps Vell. (Euphorbiaceae), Peltophorum dubium (Spreng.) Taub. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae) and Spondias dulcis Forst. f. (Anarcadiaceae). Seedlings and young plants of those species were submitted to rain with dissolved fluoride (30 mg.L-1), during 20 min daily, for 10 consecutive days. Apical and marginal necrosis occurred in the leaf blades of all species just after the first simulated rain. Two days after treatment, S. dulcis, in the young plant stage, showed to be the most sensitive species by exhibiting large necrotic areas, while G. americana was the most resistant species. At the young plant stage, the species that accumulated more fluoride were also the most sensitive ones; such a relation was not observed in plants at the seedling stage. The pollutant at the level employed caused drastic alterations in the leaf blade of S. dulcis and also damaged all of its anatomical structure. The high susceptibility of S. dulcis to fluoride suggests that this species possess potential features to be employed as a bioindicator. However, for a better characterization of the responses of S. dulcis to fluoride and its usage in biomonitoring programs, more studies are required.

Keywords : Fluoride; bioindicators; native plants; symptomatology.

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