Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
versión On-line ISSN 1414-431X
Factors associated with the development of renal complications of diabetes mellitus in São Paulo city. Braz J Med Biol Res [online]. 1997, vol.30, n.6, pp.735-744. ISSN 1414-431X. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-879X1997000600006.
The incidence of diabetic end-stage renal failure (ESRF) varies worldwide and risk factors have been demonstrated in several populations. The objective of the present study was to identify possible factors associated with the risk of development of ESRF in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Two groups of diabetic subjects were included in a case-control study: 1) one group was submitted to renal replacement therapies, attending dialysis centers in São Paulo city and 2) the same number of controls without clinical nephropathy (two negative dipstick tests for urine protein), matched for duration of DM, were obtained from an outpatient clinic. A standardized questionnaire was used by a single investigator and additional data were obtained from the medical records of the patients. A total of 290 diabetic patients from 33 dialysis centers were identified, and 266 questionnaires were considered to contain reliable information. Male/female ratios were 1.13 for ESRF and 0.49 for the control group. A higher frequency of men was observed in the ESRF group when compared with controls (53 vs 33%, P<0.00001), although logistic regression analysis did not confirm an association of gender and diabetic nephropathy (DN). Similar proportions of non-white individuals were found for both groups. Patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) were less common than patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), particularly in the control group (3.4 vs 26.3%, P<0.00001, for controls and ESRF patients, respectively); this type of DM was associated with a higher risk of ESRF than NIDDM, as determined by univariate analysis or logistic regression (OR = 4.1). Hypertension by the time of the DM diagnosis conferred a 1.4-fold higher risk of ESRF (P = 0.04), but no difference was observed concerning the presence of a family history. Association between smoking and alcohol habits and increased risk was observed (OR = 4.5 and 5.9, respectively, P<0.001). A 2.4-fold higher risk of ESRF was demonstrated in patients with multiple hospitalizations due to DM decompensation, which suggested poor metabolic control. Photocoagulation and neuropathy were found to be strongly associated with ESRF but not with macrovascular disease. Data collected in our country reinforce the higher risk attributable to IDDM and the association between hypertension and the progression of DN. Indirect evidence for an association with metabolic control is also suggested
Palabras clave : chronic renal failure; diabetes mellitus; diabetic nephropathy; associated factors.