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Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
On-line version ISSN 1414-431X
DE-OLIVEIRA, G.R. et al. Acute blood volume expansion delays the gastrointestinal transit of a charcoal meal in awake rats. Braz J Med Biol Res [online]. 1998, vol.31, n.6, pp.835-840. ISSN 1414-431X. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-879X1998000600017.
The present study evaluates the effect of blood volume expansion on the gastrointestinal transit of a charchoal meal (2.5 ml of an aqueous suspension consisting of 5% charcoal and 5% gum arabic) in awake male Wistar rats (200-270 g). On the day before the experiments, the rats were anesthetized with ether, submitted to left jugular vein cannulation and fasted with water ad libitum until 2 h before the gastrointestinal transit measurement. Blood volume expansion by iv infusion of 1 ml/min Ringer bicarbonate in volumes of 3, 4 or 5% body weight delayed gastrointestinal transit at 10 min after test meal administration by 21.3-26.7% (P<0.05), but no effect was observed after 1 or 2% body weight expansion. The effect of blood volume expansion (up to 5% body weight) on gastrointestinal transit lasted for at least 60 min (P<0.05). Mean arterial pressure increased transiently and central venous pressure increased and hematocrit decreased (P<0.05). Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy and yohimbine (3 mg/kg) prevented the delay caused by expansion on gastrointestinal transit, while atropine (0.5 mg/kg), L-NAME (2 mg/kg), hexamethonium (10 mg/kg), prazosin (1 mg/kg) or propranolol (2 mg/kg) were ineffective. These data show that blood volume expansion delays the gastrointestinal transit of a charcoal meal and that vagal and yohimbine-sensitive pathways appear to be involved in this phenomenon. The delay in gastrointestinal transit observed here, taken together with the modifications of gastrointestinal permeability to salt and water reported by others, may be part of the mechanisms involved in liquid excess management.
Keywords : hypervolemia; blood volume; gastrointestinal transit; rats; gastrointestinal motility.