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Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
On-line version ISSN 1414-431X
GONDIM, F. de-A.A. et al. Variations in gastric emptying of liquid elicited by acute blood volume changes in awake rats. Braz J Med Biol Res [online]. 1998, vol.31, n.7, pp. 967-973. ISSN 1414-431X. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-879X1998000700013.
We have observed that acute blood volume expansion increases the gastroduodenal resistance to the flow of liquid in anesthetized dogs, while retraction decreases it (Santos et al. (1991) Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 143: 261-269). This study evaluates the effect of blood volume expansion and retraction on the gastric emptying of liquid in awake rats using a modification of the technique of Scarpignato (1980) (Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie, 246: 286-294). Male Wistar rats (180-200 g) were fasted for 16 h with water ad libitum and 1.5 ml of the test meal (0.5 mg/ml phenol red solution in 5% glucose) was delivered to the stomach immediately after random submission to one of the following protocols: 1) normovolemic control (N = 22), 2) expansion (N = 72) by intravenous infusion (1 ml/min) of Ringer-bicarbonate solution, volumes of 1, 2, 3 or 5% body weight, or 3) retraction (N = 22) by controlled bleeding (1.5 ml/100 g). Gastric emptying of liquid was inhibited by 19-51.2% (P<0.05) after blood volume expansion (volumes of 1, 2, 3 or 5% body weight). Blood volume expansion produced a sustained increase in central venous pressure while mean arterial pressure was transiently increased during expansion (P<0.05). Blood volume retraction increased gastric emptying by 28.5-49.9% (P<0.05) and decreased central venous pressure and mean arterial pressure (P<0.05). Infusion of the shed blood 10 min after bleeding reversed the effect of retraction on gastric emptying. These findings suggest that gastric emptying of liquid is subject to modulation by the blood volume.
Keywords : blood volume; hypervolemia; hemorrhage; central venous pressure; gastric emptying; gastrointestinal motility.